Instrumented urethral catheter and its ex vivo validation in a sheep urethra

Mahdi Ahmadi, Rajesh Rajamani, Gerald Timm, Serdar Sezen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This paper designs and fabricates an instrumented catheter for instantaneous measurement of distributed urethral pressure profiles. Since the catheter enables a new type of urological measurement, a process for accurate ex vivo validation of the catheter is developed. A flexible sensor strip is first fabricated with nine pressure sensors and integrated electronic pads for an associated sensor IC chip. The flexible sensor strip and associated IC chip are assembled on a 7 Fr Foley catheter. A sheep bladder and urethra are extracted and used in an ex vivo set up for verification of the developed instrumented catheter. The bladder-urethra are suspended in a test rig and pressure cuffs placed to apply known static and dynamic pressures around the urethra. A significant challenge in the performance of the sensor system is the presence of parasitics that introduce large bias and drift errors in the capacitive sensor signals. An algorithm based on use of reference parasitic transducers is used to compensate for the parasitics. Extensive experimental results verify that the developed compensation method works effectively. Results on pressure variation profiles circumferentially around the urethra and longitudinally along the urethra are presented. The developed instrumented catheter will be useful in improved urodynamics to more accurately diagnose the source of urinary incontinence in patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number035702
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 13 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • capacitive sensors
  • micro-sensors
  • parasitic capacitance
  • pressure sensors
  • urethral pressure
  • urinary incontinence


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