Information about nonmotorized traffic is needed to support management of transportation systems. However, transportation officials across the United States generally have not monitored nonmotorized traffic, and most agencies lack bicycle and pedestrian counts. This paper describes current efforts by the Colorado, Minnesota, and Oregon Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to establish programs for monitoring non-motorized traffic. With FHWA principles for traffic monitoring as a framework, this case study summarizes state approaches for initiating monitoring, agency collaboration with local governments, and continuous and short-duration monitoring efforts. Agency protocols for data collection, analysis, and management, including development of factors for purposes such as estimating average daily bicyclists or bicycle miles traveled, are also compared. Agency efforts to demonstrate the effectiveness of monitoring technologies are described. This study reveals similar objectives across states, both similarities and differences in approaches, differing rates of implementation, and similar problems in implementation. The paper summarizes lessons learned and identifies challenges that DOTs will face in institutionalizing the monitoring of nonmotorized traffic.