Cilia and flagella are conserved, motile, and sensory cell organelles involved in signal transduction and human disease. Their scaffold consists of a 9-fold array of remarkably stable doublet microtubules (DMTs), along which motor proteins transmit force for ciliary motility and intraflagellar transport. DMTs possess Ribbons of three to four hyper-stable protofilaments whose location, organization, and specialized functions have been elusive. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the distribution and structural arrangements of Ribbon proteins from sea urchin sperm flagella, using quantitative immunobiochemistry, proteomics, immuno-cryo-electron microscopy, and tomography. Isolated Ribbons contain acetylated α-tubulin, β-tubulin, conserved protein Rib45, >95% of the axonemal tektins, and >95% of the calcium-binding proteins, Rib74 and Rib85.5, whose human homologues are related to the cause of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. DMT scontain only one type of Ribbon, corresponding to protofilaments A11-12-13-1 of the A-tubule. Rib74 and Rib85.5 are associated with the Ribbon in the lumen of the A-tubule. Ribbons contain a single ∼5-nm wide filament, composed of equimolar tektins A, B, and C, which interact with the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. A summary of findings is presented, and the functions of Ribbon proteins are discussed in terms of the assembly and stability of DMTs, ciliary motility, and other microtubule systems.