The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage. Relative to charophycean algae, land plant genomes are characterized by genes encoding novel biochemical pathways, new phytohormone signaling pathways (notably auxin), expanded repertoires of signaling pathways, and increased diversity in some transcription factor families. Compared with other sequenced land plants, M. polymorpha exhibits low genetic redundancy in most regulatory pathways, with this portion of its genome resembling that predicted for the ancestral land plant. PaperClip [Formula presentes] The genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha sheds light on the evolution of land plants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Funding from ARC FF0561326 , DP130100177 , DP160100892 (J.L.B), MEXT KAKENHI Grant Numbers ( 15K21758 , 16H06279 , 25113001 , 25113009 [T. Kohchi], 22112514 , 24112715 , 24510272 [K.T.Y.], 15H04391 , 15H01233 , 17H06472 [K. Ishizaki], FWF grant P28320-B21 (F.B.), SNF grant 310030B_160336 (U.G.), Gates Cambridge Trust (C.R.B.), Program to Disseminate Tenure Tracking System , MEXT, Japan (Y.I.), the Marsden Fund of New Zealand grant PAF1302 (K.D.), UC MEXUS Collaborative program grant 2011-UCMEXUS-19941-44-OAC7 (M.A.A.-V, X.C., and E.D.L.), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) grant CB-158550 (M.A.A.-V.), COSEAMX1 JEAI EPIMAIZE , Universidad Veracruzana (M.A.A.-V. and D.G.), CONACYT grant CB-158561 (A.E.D.A.), Newton Fund grant RG79985 (M.A.A.-V. and J.H.), and Universidad Veracruzana - Cuerpo Académico CA-UVER-234 , Marie Sklodowska-Curie action ( #658900 ) (D.G.) is acknowledged. We thank Sandra K. Floyd for DNA and RNA isolation; David Powell, Kathryn Hodgins, and Xuemei Chen for bioinformatics assistance; and Kanako Takeda, Manami Miyazaki, Takumi Kondoh, Yuiri Sowa, Yuma Hibi, Ryo Hirai, Motoyoshi Nakamura, Jun Inoue, Tatsuya Hasegawa, Mihoko Kobayashi, Kyoko Miyashita, and Taisuke Togawa for isolation of X-linked markers. We apologize to those researchers whose works we consulted but were unable to cite due to lack of space.
© 2017 The Author(s)
- Marchantia polymorpha
- charophycean algae
- land plant evolution
- sex chromosome