Nitrogen fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes contributes significant amounts of N to agricultural and natural environments. In natural soils, rhizobia compete with indigenous bacterial communities to colonize legume roots, which leads to symbiotic interactions. However, limited information is currently available on the effects of the rhizobial symbiont on the resident microbial community in the legume rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere, which is partly due to the presence of native nodulating rhizobial strains. In the present study, we used a symbiotic system comprised of Paraburkholderia phymatum and Mimosa pudica to examine the interaction of an inoculant strain with indigenous soil bacteria. The effects of a symbiont inoculation on the native bacterial community was investigated using high throughput sequencing and an analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The results obtained revealed that the inoculation induced significant alterations in the microbial community present in the rhizoplane+endosphere of the roots, with 13 different taxa showing significant changes in abundance. No significant changes were observed in the rhizospheric soil. The relative abundance of P. phymatum significantly increased in the rhizoplane+endosphere of the root, but significant decreased in the rhizospheric soil. While the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and root endosphere contained a wide diversity of bacteria, the nodules were predominantly colonized by P. phymatum. A network analysis revealed that the operational taxonomic units of Streptomyces and Phycicoccus were positively associated with P. phymatum as potential keystone taxa. Collectively, these results suggest that the success of an inoculated symbiont depends on its ability to colonize the roots in the face of competition by other soil bacteria. A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which an inoculated strain colonizes its plant host is crucial for realizing the full potential of microbial inoculants in sustainable agriculture.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This stu?y was supporte? in part by fun?ing from the RACAS grant of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (to PG) an? from the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (to MJS)
This study was supported in part by funding from the RACAS grant of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (to PG) and from the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (to MJS).
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