Innovative method for analysis of safranal under static and dynamic conditions through combination of HS-SPME-GC technique with mathematical modelling

Samira Feyzi, Mehdi Varidi, Mohammad Reza Housaindokht, Zarrin Es'haghi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a well-known spice which is used as the colourant and flavouring agent in food products. Safranal could act as an indicator for saffron grading, authentication and adulteration, as well as for quality evaluation of saffron flavoured products; since it is the main odourant and the most aroma-active compound of saffron. Objectives: Firstly, determination of the optimum static conditions for safranal extraction through headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) technique. Secondly, safranal measurement in different saffron flavoured products under the optimised static conditions. Thirdly, elucidation of the method efficiency for safranal measurement under non-equilibrium conditions for a saffron drink sample. Methods: Different equilibrium times, pH and salt concentrations were applied on aqueous solutions of safranal. Accordingly, the optimised static conditions were determined for safranal extraction through HS-SPME-GC approach using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. Results: Under static conditions, a linear response was obtained for standard curve within the safranal concentration range of 0.08–30 ppm, with R2 = 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.04 and 0.08 ppm, respectively. Despite the fact that safranal peak area was an efficient parameter for quantifications under static conditions; its poor reproducibility was proved under dynamic conditions for the saffron drink sample. This observation necessitated application of kinetic studies on real food samples. Conclusions: Safranal extraction was successfully performed from aqueous matrices through HS-SPME-GC, under static conditions. Mathematical modelling resulted in kinetic parameters that improved the efficiency of safranal measurement under dynamic conditions, using PDMS fibre.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)564-574
Number of pages11
JournalPhytochemical Analysis
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The financial support of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad is gratefully acknowledged (Grant No. 42723).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • food samples
  • kinetic study
  • PDMS fibre
  • saffron
  • safranal


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