Purpose: To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of balloon-assisted delivery of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) for a range of peripheral arterial applications. Materials and Methods: Six academic medical centers entered retrospective data on 46 consecutive patients (27 men, 19 women; ages, 11–94 y; mean age, 50.3 y) who underwent 60 balloon-assisted EVOH procedures. The cohort was restricted to procedures involving peripheral, nonneural arteries 1–5.5 mm in diameter. Clinical indications included a wide range of vascular pathologic conditions (most commonly arteriovenous malformations [n = 20], renal angiomyolipomas [n = 8], and acute hemorrhage [n = 9]) and targeted visceral and musculoskeletal peripheral arteries. Data collected included sex, age, clinical indication, arterial pathology, arteries embolized, type of occlusion balloon microcatheter, type and concentration of EVOH agent, effectiveness as an embolic backstop, vessels protected, adequacy of EVOH cast penetration, catheter extraction, nontarget embolization, and complications. Results: Balloon occlusion prevented EVOH reflux in 59 of 60 procedures (98.3%). Nontarget EVOH embolization occurred in 2 procedures (3.3%). Adequate EVOH cast penetration and complete filling of the target pathologic structure were seen in 57 of 60 procedures (95%). Balloon deflation and uneventful extraction occurred in all procedures; small EVOH fragments detached into target arteries in 2 cases. One major (1.7%) and 2 minor (3.3%) complications occurred. Conclusions: Balloon-assisted EVOH embolization of peripheral arteries is feasible, safe, effective, and versatile. The primary advantage of balloon-assisted EVOH embolization is the ability to apply more injection pressure to advance the EVOH cast assertively into the pathologic structure(s).
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article