Initial comparison of vital signs monitoring on the wrist with the ankle and bicep

Sam Carlson, Farhanuddin Fazaluddin Kazi, Abigail R. Clarke-Sather, Jomara Sandbulte, Sonya Wang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Kangaroo care is a vital component of infant care that can lead to reduced morbidity and mortality amongst infants born prematurely. While it is known that kangaroo care, or more simply, skin-To-skin contact, can lead to better health outcomes for both the infant and the mother, the correlation between duration of kangaroo care and positive health outcomes remains a mystery. Not all mothers are able to perform kangaroo mother care, or 24-hour kangaroo care, so it is important to know how much kangaroo care is necessary to achieve positive health outcomes for infants born prematurely. To determine the relationship between maternal-infant interactions, a system of health monitoring devices is presented to measure the duration and frequency of kangaroo care, along with the effects of kangaroo care before, during, and after the act. One specific parameter of interest is the heartrate of the mother and infant. The maternal heartrate can be measured with a commercially available Garmin Venu® Sq smartwatch, but it typically cannot be worn on the wrist in NICUs due to their infection control guidelines. The viability of wearing a Garmin® smartwatch to measure maternal heartrate on the ankle or bicep compared to the wrist was determined by wearing three smartwatches simultaneously on the specified locations. It was found that the smartwatch located at the ankle undercounted the heartrate by an average of 0.5 bpm and the smartwatch located at the bicep overcounted by an average of 0.05 bpm. From statistical analysis, it was determined that the smartwatch worn at the bicep would be an acceptable alternative to wearing a smartwatch on the wrist to gather maternal heartrate data for use in the complete kangaroo care monitoring system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2023 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2023
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9780791886731
StatePublished - 2023
Event2023 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2023 - Minneapolis, United States
Duration: Apr 17 2023Apr 21 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the 2023 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2023


Conference2023 Design of Medical Devices Conference, DMD 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by ASME.


  • Kangaroo care
  • Smartwatch
  • Vitals monitoring


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