Participants in an international conference on the management of haemophilia patients with inhibitors developed a jointly authored summary of the findings and conclusions of the conference. Current knowledge of the genetic and immunologic mechanisms underlying inhibitor development was briefly summarized. Concerning the purported treatment-related risk factors, conference participants commented on the limitations of the available evidence and the need for more rigorous prospective research in a fully genotyped population. Other clinical considerations discussed included the unproved utility of routine surveillance, the need for assay standardization, the management of acute bleeding and approaches to joint disease prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction (ITI). A number of issues were identified as needing further investigation in larger prospective studies, ideally through international cooperation. Such studies should enrol cohorts that have been scrupulously defined in terms of mutation status and treatment exposure. Finally, conference participants urged their colleagues to participate in the currently ongoing international trials of ITI.