Inhibiting HTLV-1 Protease: A Viable Antiviral Target

Gordon J. Lockbaum, Mina Henes, Nathaniel Talledge, Linah N. Rusere, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Mohan Somasundaran, Akbar Ali, Louis M. Mansky, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that can cause severe paralytic neurologic disease and immune disorders as well as cancer. An estimated 20 million people worldwide are infected with HTLV-1, with prevalence reaching 30% in some parts of the world. In stark contrast to HIV-1, no direct acting antivirals (DAAs) exist against HTLV-1. The aspartyl protease of HTLV-1 is a dimer similar to that of HIV-1 and processes the viral polyprotein to permit viral maturation. We report that the FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor darunavir (DRV) inhibits the enzyme with 0.8 μM potency and provides a scaffold for drug design against HTLV-1. Analogs of DRV that we designed and synthesized achieved submicromolar inhibition against HTLV-1 protease and inhibited Gag processing in viral maturation assays and in a chronically HTLV-1 infected cell line. Cocrystal structures of these inhibitors with HTLV-1 protease highlight opportunities for future inhibitor design. Our results show promise toward developing highly potent HTLV-1 protease inhibitors as therapeutic agents against HTLV-1 infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)529-538
Number of pages10
JournalACS Chemical Biology
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 19 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants 1R21AI149716-01A1, P01 GM109767, and R01 GM98550. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DEAC02-06CH11357. GM/CA@APS has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute (ACB-12002) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (AGM-12006). The Eiger 16M detector was funded by an NIH?Office of Research Infrastructure P r o g r a m s , Hi g h - E n d I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n G r a n t (1S10OD012289-01A1). We thank the beamline specialists at 23-ID-D for their help in data collection. N.T. is supported by NIH fellowship grants T32 DA007097 and F32 AI150351.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants 1R21AI149716-01A1, P01 GM109767, and R01 GM98550. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. GM/CA@APS has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute (ACB-12002) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (AGM-12006). The Eiger 16M detector was funded by an NIH–Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, High-End Instrumentation Grant (1S10OD012289-01A1). We thank the beamline specialists at 23-ID-D for their help in data collection. N.T. is supported by NIH fellowship grants T32 DA007097 and F32 AI150351.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

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