Influenza A results in considerable morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Although immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis are targeted toward high-risk groups, persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have not been widely recongized as being at increased risk of influenza infection. We report a case of influenza A pneumonitis in a patient infected with HIV. The literature on influenza immunization of HIV-infected patients is reviewed and the implications for public health are discussed. Consideration should be given to influenza immunization and chemoprophylaxis in this enlarging population. Further investigation of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of influenza in HIV-infected patients is warranted.