Minimal research has simultaneously explored the premigration, displacement, and postmigration experiences of loneliness among older adults with a refugee history. Drawing from a constructivist grounded theory study guided by an intersectionality framework, this study aimed to explore the factors influencing loneliness in these three phases among Hmong older adults with a refugee background. Interviews were conducted with 17 Hmong older adults aged 65 and older residing in Northern California. Findings revealed the influencing factors emerging from systems of oppression grounded within the social, political, and cultural context of each phase. Influencing factors of loneliness were identified as betrayal, familial loss, instability, war violence, loss of social status, isolation, diminishing filial piety, language barrier, declining health, and lack of purpose. This study highlights the need for more research, practice, and policy focused on the context of the refugee experience to gain a greater insight into their loneliness experiences.
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- Grounded theory
- Southeast Asian