Influences on the frequency and type of community pharmacy services

William R. Doucette, Julia J. Rippe, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, David A. Mott, Jon C. Schommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Objectives To describe services provided by community pharmacies and to identify factors associated with services being provided in community pharmacies. Design Cross-sectional national mail survey. Setting and participants Pharmacists actively practicing in community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets). Outcome measures Frequency and type of pharmacy services available in a community pharmacy, including medication therapy management, immunization, adjusting medication therapy, medication reconciliation, disease state management, health screening or coaching, complex nonsterile compounding, and point-of-care testing. Results With a 48.4% response rate, the survey showed that community pharmacies offered on average 3 of the 8 services studied. Pharmacy chains and supermarket pharmacies reported providing significantly more services than did mass merchandise pharmacies. The number of pharmacy services provided was positively associated with involvement in an interprofessional care team, innovativeness, and perceived workload. The number of pharmacy services was negatively correlated with having 3.5 or more pharmacy technicians on duty. Conclusion Pharmacy chains and supermarkets are providing the most pharmacy services among community pharmacy settings. The number of services provided was associated with innovativeness, technician staffing, and perceived workload. Also, involvement with an interprofessional care team supported greater service delivery. Community pharmacies vary in their provision of services beyond dispensing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-76.e1
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


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