Influences of the menstrual phase on cortisol response to stress in nicotine dependent women: A preliminary examination

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Abstract

Introduction: Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Methods: Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. Results: A series of repeated measures analysis of covariance found a significant smoking group × menstrual phase × sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. Implications: We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-622
Number of pages6
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Nicotine
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Hydrocortisone
Menstrual Cycle
Smoking
Corpus Luteum
Follicular Phase
Luteal Phase
Saliva
Craving

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

Cite this

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title = "Influences of the menstrual phase on cortisol response to stress in nicotine dependent women: A preliminary examination",
abstract = "Introduction: Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Methods: Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. Results: A series of repeated measures analysis of covariance found a significant smoking group × menstrual phase × sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. Implications: We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.",
author = "Motohiro Nakajima and Allen, {Sharon S} and al'Absi, {Mustafa N}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1093/ntr/nty071",
language = "English (US)",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Influences of the menstrual phase on cortisol response to stress in nicotine dependent women

T2 - A preliminary examination

AU - Nakajima, Motohiro

AU - Allen, Sharon S

AU - al'Absi, Mustafa N

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Introduction: Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Methods: Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. Results: A series of repeated measures analysis of covariance found a significant smoking group × menstrual phase × sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. Implications: We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

AB - Introduction: Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Methods: Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. Results: A series of repeated measures analysis of covariance found a significant smoking group × menstrual phase × sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. Implications: We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

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