Characterization of pesticide bioavailability, particularly in aged soils, is of continued interest because this information is necessary for environmental risk assessment. However, pesticide bioavailability in aged soils has been characterized by a variety of methods with limited success, due in part to methodological limitations. The objective of this study was to use solvent extraction methods to correlate simazine residue bioavailability in aged soils to simazine mineralization using a simazine-mineralizing bacterium. Soils from Brazil, Hawaii, and the midwestern United States were treated with UL-ring-labeled [14C]simazine and incubated for up to 8 weeks. At the end of each incubation period, soils were either incubated further, extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2, or extracted with aqueous methanol (80:20 v/v methanol/water). In a parallel experiment, after each incubation period, soils were inoculated with the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is capable of rapidly mineralizing simazine, and 14CO2 was determined. The inoculated soil samples were then extracted with 0.01 N CaCl2 and with aqueous methanol. This allowed for the evaluation of the bioavailability of aged simazine residues, without the contribution of simazine desorption from soil. Results of these studies indicated that simazine sorption to soil increased with aging and that amounts of simazine in aged soils extracted by 0.01 M CaCl2 and aqueous methanol were highly correlated to amounts of simazine mineralized by Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Consequently, 0.01 M CaCl2/methanol-extractable simazine in aged soils can be used to estimate bioavailable residues. This technique may be useful in determining the bioavailability of other s-triazine compounds in soils.
- Aged residues