Emerging evidence suggests that women have a more difficult time quitting smoking than men-possibly due, in part, to sex hormones. The present study characterized mood, premenstrual symptomatology, and smoking withdrawal, as well as smoking behavior, in the follicular and luteal phases during ad libitum smoking in 25 women intending to quit. We also investigated the possible influence of phase-related variability in these measures on likelihood of study adherence and smoking cessation. We found that premenstrual symptomatology, as well as some measures of mood and smoking withdrawal, were significantly higher during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. Cigarettes/day did not vary by menstrual cycle phase. Phase-related variability in premenstrual symptomatology [F(3, 20) = 2.82, p = 0.0650)] and urge to smoke [F(2, 21) = 4.85, p = 0.0186)] were associated with relapse. These data support the inference that sex hormones influence smoking cessation outcome. This knowledge may contribute to the development of more rational and effective smoking cessation interventions for women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by NIDA grant 2-R01-DA08075. We thank Dr. Bruce Center, Dr. Marc Mooney, and Ms. Sandy Snedecor for their statistical expertise, as well as Dr. Megan Roth for assistance with the concept and development of the study. We also thank our research staff — Tracy Bade, Nicole Cordes, and Roshan Paudel — for their help with subject recruitment, data measurement, and data entry.
- Menstrual cycle
- Premenstrual symptomatology
- Smoking withdrawal