Control of calcium-mediated storage defects, such as age gelation and sedimentation, were evaluated in enteral high-protein dairy beverages during storage. To investigate the effects of reduced-calcium ingredients on storage stability, 2 batches each of milk protein concentrates (MPC) with 3 levels of calcium content were acquired [control, 20% calcium-reduced (MPC-20), and 30% calcium-reduced (MPC-30)]. Control and calcium-reduced MPC were used to formulate 8% (wt/wt) protein enteral dairy beverages. The formulation also consisted of other ingredients, such as gums, maltodextrin, potassium citrate, and sucrose. The pH-adjusted formulation was divided into 2 parts, one with 0.15% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and the other with 0% SHMP. The formulations were homogenized and retort sterilized at 121°C for 15 min. The retort-sterilized beverages were stored at room temperature for up to 90 d and particle size and apparent viscosity were measured on d 0, 7, 30, 60, and 90. Beverages formulated using control MPC with 0 and 0.15% SHMP exhibited sedimentation, causing a decrease in apparent viscosity by approximately 10 cP and clear phase separation by d 90. The MPC-20 beverages with 0% SHMP exhibited stable particle size and apparent viscosities during storage. In the presence of 0.15% SHMP, particle size increased rapidly by 40 nm on d 90, implying the start of progressive gelation. On the other hand, highest apparent viscosities leading to gelation were observed in MPC-30 beverages at both concentrations of SHMP studied. These results suggested that beverages formulated with MPC-20 and 0% SHMP would have better storage stability by maintaining lower apparent viscosities. Further reduction of calcium using MPC-30 resulted in rapid gelation of beverages during storage.
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- calcium-reduced MPC
- high-protein dairy beverages
- sodium hexametaphosphate