This study investigates the effect of injection gas molar mass on the performance of counterflow atomization, using a novel internal mixing design. At fixed water flow rates and gas/liquid momentum ratios, the counterflow injection gas was systematically varied using air, argon, and helium. Droplet Sauter mean diameter and relative span factor were optically determined to evaluate spray quality, while momentum ratio and gas/liquid mass flow ratio were varied to examine atomizer efficiency. In contrast with previous findings for other twin-fluid nozzle types, gas molar mass in counterflow atomization was found to influence droplet diameter as significantly as gas/liquid mass flow ratio, with lighter gases producing smaller droplets. A preliminary model of counterflow atomization mixing and breakup shows good agreement with the collected data.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under (Grant No. DGE-1840377). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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- countercurrent shear
- gas properties
- internal mixing
- twin-fluid atomization