Influence of Diabetes during Pregnancy on Gestational Age-specific Newborn Weight among US Black and US White Infants

Edith C. Kieffer, Greg R. Alexander, Michael D. Kogan, John H. Himes, William H. Herman, Joanne M. Mor, Robert Hayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


This study examined the impact of maternal diabetes on birth weight for gestational age patterns of all term black infants and white infants in the United States using data derived from the 1990-1991 US Live Birth File of the National Center for Health Statistics. Infants of both black mothers and white mothers exhibited the expected fetal overgrowth associated with maternal diabetes. However, the increase in birth weight was much greater in infants of black than white diabetic mothers in comparison with their nondiabetic counterparts, as measured by the discrepancy in birth weight between infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers at each gestational week, the incidence of large for gestational age, high birth weight, small for gestational age, and low birth weight. After adjustment for maternal hypertension, prenatal care use, and sociodemographic factors, the disparity in mean birth weight associated with diabetes was 211.67 g in black infants and 115.74 g in white infants. The adjusted odds ratios of birth weight ≥4,000 g were 2.98 (95% confidence interval 2.89-3.12) for black infants and 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.78-1.89) for white infants. Given the potential risks for mothers and infants consequent to maternal diabetes and fetal hyperinsulinemia, further investigation of the prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of diabetes during pregnancy among black mothers and infants is warranted. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:1053-61.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1053-1061
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 1998


  • Birth weight
  • Blacks
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Fetal macrosomia
  • Gestational age
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal care
  • Whites


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