Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on cheddar cheese quality: Manufacture and composition

P. Upreti, L. E. Metzger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Eight Cheddar cheeses with 2 levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) were manufactured. All cheeses were made using a stirred-curd procedure and were replicated 3 times. Treatments with a high level of Ca and P were produced by setting the milk and drawing the whey at a higher pH (6.6 and 6.3, respectively) compared with the treatments with a low level of Ca and P (pH of 6.2 and 5.7, respectively). The lactose content in the cheeses was varied by adding lactose (2.5% by weight of milk) to the milk for high lactose cheeses, and washing the curd for low lactose cheeses. The difference in S/M was obtained by dividing the curds into halves, weighing each half, and salting at 3.5 and 2.25% of the weight of the curd for high and low S/M, respectively. All cheeses were salted at a pH of 5.4. Modifications in cheese-making protocols produced cheeses with desired differences in Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M. Average Ca and P in the high Ca and P cheeses was 0.68 and 0.48%, respectively, vs. 0.53 and 0.41% for the low Ca and P cheeses. Average lactose content of the high lactose treatments at d 1 was 1.48% compared with 0.30% for the low lactose treatments. The S/M for the high and low S/M cheeses was 6.68 and 4.77%, respectively. Mean moisture, fat, and protein content of the cheeses ranged from 32.07 to 37.57%, 33.32 to 35.93%, and 24.46 to 26.40%, respectively. The moisture content differed among the treatments, whereas fat and protein content on dry basis was similar.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)420-428
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Dairy Management, Inc., (Rosemont, IL) and Midwest Dairy Association (St. Paul, MN) for funding this project.


  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Residual lactose
  • Salt


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on cheddar cheese quality: Manufacture and composition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this