Endogenous 5-methylcytosine (MeC) residues are found at all CG dinucleotides of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the mutational 'hotspots' for smoking induced lung cancer. MeC enhances the reactivity of its base paired guanine towards carcinogenic diolepoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in cigarette smoke. In the present study, the structural basis for these effects was investigated using a series of unnatural nucleoside analogs and a representative PAH diolepoxide, benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE). Synthetic DNA duplexes derived from a frequently mutated region of the p53 gene (5′-CCCGGCACCC GC[15N3,13C1-G]TCCGCG-3′, + strand) were prepared containing [15N3, 13C1]-guanine opposite unsubstituted cytosine, MeC, abasic site, or unnatural nucleobase analogs. Following BPDE treatment and hydrolysis of the modified DNA to 2′-deoxynucleosides, N2-BPDE-dG adducts formed at the [ 15N3, 13C1]-labeled guanine and elsewhere in the sequence were quantified by mass spectrometry. We found that C-5 alkylcytosines and related structural analogs specifically enhance the reactivity of the base paired guanine towards BPDE and modify the diastereomeric composition of N 2-BPDE-dG adducts. Fluorescence and molecular docking studies revealed that 5-alkylcytosines and unnatural nucleobase analogs with extended aromatic systems facilitate the formation of intercalative BPDE-DNA complexes, placing BPDE in a favorable orientation for nucleophilic attack by the N 2 position of guanine.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Institutes of Health (CA-095039 to N.Y.T., GM-62248 to D.M.Y., GM79760 to R.J. and CA-108604 to S.J.S.); Terry Johnson Center for Basic Cancer Research at the Kansas State University (C.L.); European Research Council (260341 to S.J.S.). Funding for open access charge: National Institutes of Health (CA-095039).