Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Conflict of interest: J.M. Wells reports receiving grants from the NIH/NHLBI during the conduct of the study; contracts to conduct research and advisory board membership for GlaxoSmithKline, contracts to conduct research for AstraZeneca, Bayer and Gilead, advisory board membership for Mereo BioPharma and Boehringer Ingelheim, and a research pilot project for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, outside the submitted work. L.A. Colangelo reports grants from NHLBI to Northwestern University during the conduct of the study. L. Sivarajan has nothing to disclose. B. Thyagarajan reports receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of the study. M.T. Dransfield reports receiving grants from the NIH during the conduct of the study; grants from the Dept of Defense, personal fees for consulting and fees for contracted clinical trials from Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, PneumRx/BTG and Boston Scientific, fees for contracted clinical trials from Novartis, Yungjin and Pulmonx, and personal fees for consulting from Genentech and Quark Pharmaceuticals, outside the submitted work. C. Iribarren has nothing to disclose. P.A. Reyfman has nothing to disclose. D.R. Jacobs has nothing to disclose. G.R. Washko reports receiving grants from the NIH; grants, and consultancy and advisory board fees from Boehringer Ingelheim; consultancy fees from Genentech, Regeneron and GlaxoSmithKline; fees for consultancy and chairing a data safety monitoring board from PulmonX; advisory fees from ModoSpira; grants from BTG Interventional Medicine; grants and consultancy fees from Janssen Pharmaceuticals; and advisory board fees from Toshiba, all outside the submitted work. G.R. Washko is a founder and co-owner of Quantitative Imaging Solutions, which provides image-based consulting and develops software to enable data sharing. G.R. Washko’s spouse works for Biogen, which is focused on developing therapies for fibrotic lung disease. R. Kalhan reports receiving grants from the NHLBI during the conduct of the study; grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca and GlaxoSmithKline, grants from PneumRx (BTG) and Spiration, personal fees from CVS Caremark, Aptus Health and Boston Scientific, outside the submitted work.
Support statement: CARDIA is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (grants HHSN268201800005I and HHSN268201800007I), Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I) and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). Additional funding was provided by NHLBI R01 HL122477 (CARDIA Lung Study) and K08 HL123940 (to J.M. Wells). This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content. Funding information for this article has been deposited with the Crossref Funder Registry.