Indwelling Vascular Access Ports: Application, Advantages, and Management in Nonhuman Primates

Scott H. Oppler, David J. Leishman, Melanie L. Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Animals in the veterinary and experimental settings, including nonhuman primates (NHPs), often require repeated and prolonged vascular access for indications including blood sampling or administration of fluids, blood products, medication, or other therapies. A vascular access approach should be tailored to experimental or clinical use meeting the needs of the individual animal such that benefits outweigh risks. The optimal device and placement technique is based on the inherent advantages and disadvantages of specific anatomic sites and planned use. Totally implanted vascular access ports (VAPs) enable reliable central venous access for frequent sample collection and/or intravenous therapies. VAPs minimize discomfort with IV access to facilitate cooperation with handling and minimize stress-induced physiologic changes which can confound biologic data and drug responses. VAPs do not limit species-typical behavior and social group activities and are compatible with animal enrichment programs that include play and swim because there are no externalized components. VAPs are typically used long-term and demonstrate excellent durability with high patency and low complication rates over time, presenting a safe and dependable vascular access approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)446-460
Number of pages15
JournalSurgeries (Switzerland)
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • cooperation
  • minimally invasive
  • nonhuman primates
  • ports
  • vascular access
  • welfare


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