Induction of tumorigenesis and metastasis by the murine orthologue of tumor protein D52

Jennifer D. Lewis, Laura A. Payton, Jill G. Whitford, Jennifer A. Byrne, David I. Smith, Li Bang Yang, Robert K. Bright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Expression studies have consistently identified tumor protein D52 (TPD52) overexpression in tumor cells. Murine TPD52 (mD52) shares 86% identity with the human orthologue. To study a possible role for TPD52 in transformation, 3T3 fibroblasts were transfected with the full-length cDNA for mD52. Expression of mD52 was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis compared with 3T3 and vector-transfected 3T3 (3T3.V), and the resultant cell line was designated 3T3.mD52. At 4 weeks, 3T3.mD52 gained a 2-fold increase in growth rate, lost contact inhibition, and exhibited a marked phenotype change. Further characterization revealed an acquired ability for anchorage-independent cell growth. To determine whether 3T3.mD52 had become tumorigenic, naïve, healthy, immunocompetent syngeneic mice were inoculated subcutaneously with varying cell doses. Tumors measuring >1 cm2 were detected 60 days postinoculation with 3T3.mD52, and a 50% subcutaneous tumor incidence was obtained with as few as 5 × 105 3T3.mD52 cells. Remarkably, when lungs from 3T3.mD52 tumor-bearing mice were analyzed, numerous tumor nodules were observed, ranging from nodules less than 10 to nodules too numerous to count (inoculation with 1 × 105 and 5 × 106 cells, respectively). Further support for the metastatic capacity of 3T3.mD52 was the demonstration that transforming growth factor (TGF)-βR1 (receptor) expression decreased and TGF-β1 secretion increased in 3T3.mD52 compared with 3T3 controls. cDNA microarray analysis showed a gene expression pattern that further supported mD52-induced transformation and metastasis. Together, these data suggest that mD52 expression in 3T3 cells initiated cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, and progression to metastasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-144
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Cancer Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007


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