ETS variant 1 (ETV1), also known as ETS-related protein 81, is overexpressed in prostate tumors, but whether and how this transcription factor affects tumorigenesis has remained elusive. Here, we show that ETV1 is primarily overexpressed in the most aggressive human prostate tumors. Transgenic ETV1 mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia as well as hyperplasia/neoplasia in seminal vesicles. Moreover, ETV1 cooperated with the androgen receptor (AR) to bind to the prostate-specific antigen enhancer and stimulate gene transcription. Consistent with its ability to physically interact with AR, ETV1 rendered an ETV1 bindingsite-driven reporter androgen inducible, and, on the other hand, ETV1 super-induced transcription from an AR bindingsite on androgen stimulation. In conclusion, our study substantiates that ETV1 overexpression is an underlyingcause in the development of prostate and possibly also seminal vesicle cancer. Its interaction with and activation of AR provides a molecular mechanism on how ETV1 exerts its deleterious function. Thus, inhibiting ET V1 or blockingits interaction with AR may represent novel strategies in prostate cancer therapy.