Inducing different brain injury levels using shock wave lithotripsy

Afshin A. Divani, Pascal Salazar, Manoj Monga, Greg J. Beilman, Karen S. Santacruz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives—To assess the feasibility of inducing different severities of shock wave (SW)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) using lithotripsy. Methods—Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 20) received 5 SW pulses, and group 2 (n = 16) received 15 SWs pulses. The SW pulses were delivered to the right side of the frontal cortex. Neurologic and behavioral assessments (Garcia test, beam walking, rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline and at 3,6,24,72,and 168 hours after injury. At day 7 after injury (168 hours),we performed cerebral angiography to assess the presence of cerebral vasospasm and vascular damage due to SW-induced TBI. At the conclusion of the study, the animals were euthanized to assess damage to brain tissue using an overall histologic severity score. Results—The Garcia score was significantly higher, and the anxiety index (based on the elevated plus maze) was significantly lower in group 1 compared to group 2 (P<.05). The anxiety index for group 1 returned to the baseline level in a fast nonlinear fashion, whereas the anxiety index for group 2 followed a distinct slow linear reduction. Cerebral angiograms revealed a more severe vasospasm for the animals in group 2 compared to group 1 (P =.027). We observed a statistically significant difference in the overall histologic severity scores between the groups. The median (interquartile range) overall histologic severity scores for groups 1 and 2 were 3.0 (2.75) and 6.5 (6.0), respectively (P =.023). Conclusions—We have successfully established different SW-induced TBI severities in our SW-induced TBI model by delivering different numbers of SW pulses to brain tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2925-2933
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.


  • Anxiety
  • Axonal damage
  • Brain injury
  • Functional outcomes
  • Lithotripsy
  • Rats
  • Shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury
  • Vasospasm

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