Aggregation substance (AS) is an Enterococcus faecalis surface protein that may contribute to virulence. Using a recently described system for controlled expression of AS in E. faecalis and the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis, experiments were designed to assess the effect of AS on bacterial internalization by HT-29 and Caco-2 enterocytes. AS expression was associated with increased internalization of E. faecalis by HT-29 enterocytes and of L. lactis by HT-29 and Caco-2 enterocytes. Compared to enterocytes cultivated under standard conditions, either cultivation in hypoxia or 1-h pretreatment of enterocytes with calcium-free medium resulted in increased internalization of both E. faecalis and L. lactis (with and without AS expression). Also, AS expression augmented these increases when E. faecalis was incubated with pretreated HT-29 enterocytes and when L. lactis was incubated with pretreated Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes. These data indicated that AS might facilitate E. faecalis internalization by cultured enterocytes.