Goal setting, in combination with evidence-based interventions, may be a viable intervention component to improve oral reading fluency for struggling readers. The present study examined the efficacy of individualized goal setting on the oral reading fluency rates of upper elementary students who were reading below grade level. Visual analysis of a multiple baseline design indicated positive yet moderate effects of goal setting for some students in the goal setting condition; further individualization was implemented for participants who did not responded favorably to goal setting. Based on the mixed findings, we discuss the importance of data-based decision making in evaluating the efficacy and efficiency of intervention components for struggling readers, for whom it is particularly critical to make effective use of valuable intervention time.
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- Data based decision-making
- goal setting
- reading fluency
- reading intervention
- repeated reading