AbstractCentral place foragers often segregate in space, even without signs of direct agonistic interactions. Using parsimonious individual-based simulations, we show that for species with spatial cognitive abilities, individual-level memory of resource availability can be sufficient to cause spatial segregation in the foraging ranges of colonial animals. The shapes of the foraging distributions are governed by commuting costs, the emerging distribution of depleted resources, and the fidelity of foragers to their colonies. When colony fidelity is weak and foragers can easily switch to colonies located closer to favorable foraging grounds, this leads to space partitioning with equidistant borders between neighboring colonies. In contrast, when colony fidelity is strong-for example, because larger colonies provide safety in numbers or individuals are unable to leave-it can create a regional imbalance between resource requirements and resource availability. This leads to nontrivial space-use patterns that propagate through the landscape. Interestingly, while better spatial memory creates more defined boundaries between neighboring colonies, it can lower the average intake rate of the population, suggesting a potential trade-off between an individual's attempt for increased intake and population growth rates.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
G.A. was funded by Gemini Wind Park and the Dutch Research Council (NWO project ALWPP.2017.003), which allowed for the completion of this article. L.R.-L. was funded by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (grant no. 794760). Finally, we thank the associate editor, O. Ronce, and two anonymous reviewers for their detailed comments and suggestions.
© 2021 by The University of Chicago.
- Animal movement
- Animal tracking
- Central place foraging
- Public information
- Space partitioning
- Species distribution