Indirect tumor cell death after high-dose hypofractionated irradiation: Implications for stereotactic body radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation surgery

Chang W. Song, Yoon Jin Lee, Robert J. Griffin, Inhwan Park, Nathan A. Koonce, Susanta K Hui, Mi Sook Kim, Kathryn E Dusenbery, Paul W. Sperduto, L. Chinsoo Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). Methods and Materials FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo-in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Results After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity. Conclusions Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-172
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume93
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

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