Indicators of fluent writing in beginning writers

Kristen D. Ritchey, Kristen L. McMaster, Stephanie Al Otaiba, Cynthia S. Puranik, Young Suk Grace Kim, David C. Parker, Miriam Ortiz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

19 Scopus citations


Writing fluency has received far less research attention than fluency in other academic areas such as reading. In this chapter, we present the theoretical and empirical research on the development of fluent writing for children in prekindergarten to third grade. Existing work on assessing fluent writing within a curriculum-based measurement (CBM; Deno, Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232, 1985) framework is reviewed. Assessments tapping multiple levels of language (letter, word, sentence, and discourse) are described. This chapter also identifies the importance of fluent writing in school-based efforts for universal screening, progress monitoring, instruction, and supplemental interventions. Lastly, the chapter identifies gaps in the existing literature and targets for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Fluency Construct
Subtitle of host publicationCurriculum-Based Measurement Concepts and Applications
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages46
ISBN (Electronic)9781493928033
ISBN (Print)9781493928026
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Assessment
  • CBM-writing
  • Curriculum-based measurement
  • Instruction
  • Writing fluency
  • Written expression


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