Increase in G(s) and cyclic AMP generation in HIT cells. Evidence that the 45-kDa α-subunit of G(s) has greater functional activity than the 52-kDa α-subunit

T. F. Walseth, H. J. Zhang, L. K. Olson, W. A. Schroeder, R. P. Robertson

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Abstract

Cyclic AMP accumulation in response to forskolin, cholera toxin, or isoproterenol is dramatically increased in HIT T-15 cells, a clonal cell line of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet β cells, as a function of passage number. Forskolin and cholera toxin elevate cyclic AMP levels 5- to 10-fold higher in later passages (87-100) than in earlier passages (70-80). A similar phenomenon is observed with isoproterenol (10 μM) which increases cyclic AMP levels 56-fold in older HIT cells (passage 94), whereas only marginally stimulating cyclic AMP production in younger cells (passage 70-82). To determine whether a change in the stimulatory or inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins, G(s) or G(i), was responsible for these observations, ADP-ribosylation of HIT cell membranes with cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was examined. All passages contained two cholera toxin substrates at 52 and 45 kDa. The amount of 52 kDa did not appear to change with passage number, but the amount of 45 kDa increased in the later passages (89 and 94). The ratio of 45 to 52 kDa cholera toxin substrate, as determined by densitometric analysis, increased from 0.1 in passages 70, 75, and 82 to 0.45 at passage 89. No passage related changes in a 40-kDa pertussis toxin substrate were observed. An increase in the amount of the 45-kDa α-subunit of G(s) was confirmed on immunoblots using antisera specific for the α-subunits of G(s). The amount of functional G(s) present in various HIT cell passages was examined by determining the extent to which extracts from HIT cell membranes reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive adenylyl cyclase in S49 cyc- membranes. Extracts derived from passage 94 reconstituted three to four times more adenylyl cyclase activity in cyc- membranes than extracts from passages 70, 75, and 82. These data indicate that an increase in functional G(s) in later passages may be the underlying cause for the increased responsiveness to isoproterenol and forskolin in later passages. These data also suggest that functional differences exist between the G(s) α-subunits, with the smaller 45-kDa subunit being more efficacious in coupling to cyclic AMP synthesis than the larger 52-kDa subunit. This is a departure from the commonly held view that the two subunits have similar efficacies in stimulating adenylyl cyclase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21106-21111
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume264
Issue number35
StatePublished - 1989

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