Inclusion and democratization class, gender, race, and the extension of suffrage

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Democracy is generally defined as a combination of procedures and inclusiveness, but inclusiveness has presented a challenge for comparative historical theories of democratization since they operationalize their dependent variable with universal adult male suffrage as the standard of inclusiveness. Raising the bar to include women is an important first step in revamping theories of democratization, but it is also necessary to incorporate gender and race as categories of analysis even when the group being enfranchised is white working class men. Two additional variables, transnational activism and historical timing, are important for theories of democratization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-460+502+i
JournalComparative Politics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2004


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