Major gaps remain in our understanding of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after kidney transplant. We examined the incidence, risk factors, response to treatment, and effects on outcomes of AMR at seven transplant programs in the long-term Deterioration of Kidney Allograft Function prospective study cohort. Among 3131 kidney recipients, there were 194 observed AMR cases (6.2%) during (mean ± SD) 4.85 ± 1.86 years of follow-up. Time to AMR was 0.97 ± 1.17 (median, 0.48) years. Risk factors for AMR included younger recipient age, human leukocyte antigen DR mismatches, panel-reactive antibody >0%, positive T- or B-cell cross-match, and delayed graft function. Compared with no AMR, the adjusted time-dependent hazard ratio for death-censored graft failure is 10.1 (95% confidence interval, 6.5-15.7) for all AMR patients, 4.0 (2.5, 9.1) for early AMR (<90 days after transplant), and 24.0 (14.0-41.1) for late AMR (≥90 days after transplant). Patients were treated with different therapeutic combinations. Of 194 kidney transplant recipients with AMR, 50 (25.8%) did not respond to treatment, defined as second AMR within 100 days or no improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate by 42 days. Long-term outcomes after AMR are poor, regardless of the initial response to treatment. Better prevention and new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve long-term allograft survival.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
RI is employed by CSL Behring. This work was funded by CSL Behring, King of Prussia, PA, USA. However, this manuscript was written by the authors alone, with no restrictions from CSL Behring.
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- T-cell–mediated rejection
- death-censored graft failure
- estimated glomerular filtration rate
- graft survival
- kidney transplant
- refractory rejection