Background. Listeriosis is a foodborne disease of significant public health concern that primarily affects persons with recognized underlying conditions or diseases that impair cell-mediated immunity. The degree of risk posed by the different underlying conditions is crucial to prioritize prevention programs that target the highest risk populations. Methods. We reviewed cases of listeriosis reported in France from 2001 to 2008. Numbers of cases and deaths were tabulated by age and underlying condition. Measures of the impact of specific underlying conditions on the occurrence of listeriosis were calculated. For estimating the total number of persons living with specific diseases, we applied prevalence estimates of these diseases to the French population. Underlying conditions were ranked by the degree to which they increased the risk of listeriosis. Results. From 2001 to 2008, 1959 cases of listeriosis were reported in France (mean annual incidence 0.39 per 100 000 residents). Compared with persons <65 years with no underlying conditions, those with chronic lymphocytic leukemia had a >1000-fold increased risk of acquiring listeriosis, and those with liver cancer; myeoloproliferative disorder; multiple myeloma; acute leukemia; giant cell arteritis; dialysis; esophageal, stomach, pancreas, lung, and brain cancer; cirrhosis; organ transplantation; and pregnancy had a 100-1000-fold increased risk of listeriosis.Conclusions.To be effective and acceptable to physicians and patients, listeriosis prevention strategies should be targeted based on evidence of increased risk. Stringent dietary guidance, to avoid specific foods with a high risk for Listeria contamination, should be targeted to pregnant women and to others at highest risk of listeriosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support. This work was supported by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, which is funded by the French Ministry of Health. Potential conflicts of interest. All authors: No reported conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.