Inactivation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as a Surrogate for Yersinia pestis, by liquid biocides in the presence of food residue

J. Hilgren, K. M J Swanson, F. Diez-Gonzalez, B. Cords

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The efficacy of liquid biocides is influenced by surface cleanliness, treatment time, and temperature. Experiments were completed to measure the impact of these variables on the ability of commercial biocides to inactivate Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ATCC 29910, as a surrogate for Yersinia pestis, in the presence of food residues. The test organism was mixed with water, milk, flour, or egg yolk and then dried onto stainless steel coupons. Coupons were then exposed to sodium hypochlorite, acidified sodium chlorite, a quaternary ammonium compound, an iodophor, hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, or a peroxyfatty acid mixture, for 10 or 30 min at 10, 20, or 30°C. For all biocides except the iodophor, manufacturer-recommended disinfection levels applied for 10 min at 20°C resulted in 5-log reductions of the test organism dried alone or with flour. However, in the presence of whole milk or egg yolk residue, markedly higher sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, peroxyfatty acid mixture, quaternary ammonium compound, and iodophor concentrations were needed to achieve the 5-log reductions. Further, the quaternary ammonium compound was incapable of achieving 5-log reductions in 10 min in the presence of milk and egg yolk residues. Hydrogen peroxide and acidified sodium chlorite disinfection levels (7.5% and 2,500 ppm, respectively) achieved 5-log reductions under all test conditions. These results suggest that commercial disinfectants can adequately decontaminate clean surfaces contaminated with Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. These results also provide guidance on the feasibility of overcoming the negative influence of food residues on disinfection by adjusting biocide exposure time, temperature, and concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of food protection
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2009


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