Bone is a composite biomaterial of mineral crystals, organic matrix, and water. Each contributes to bone quality and strength and may change independently, or together, with disease progression and treatment. Even so, there is a near ubiquitous reliance on ionizing x-ray-based approaches to measure bone mineral density (BMD) which is unable to fully characterize bone strength and may not adequately predict fracture risk. Characterization of treatment efficacy in bone diseases of altered remodeling is complicated by the lack of imaging modality able to safely monitor material-level and biochemical changes in vivo. To improve upon the current state of bone imaging, we tested the efficacy of Multi Band SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (MB-SWIFT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a readout of bone derangement in an estrogen deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rat model during growth. MB-SWIFT MRI-derived BMD correlated significantly with BMD measured using micro-computed tomography (μCT). In this rodent model, growth appeared to overcome estrogen deficiency as bone mass continued to increase longitudinally over the duration of the study. Nonetheless, after 10 weeks of intervention, MB-SWIFT detected significant changes consistent with estrogen deficiency in cortical water, cortical matrix organization (T1), and marrow fat. Findings point to MB-SWIFT's ability to quantify BMD in good agreement with μCT while providing additive quantitative outcomes about bone quality in a manner consistent with estrogen deficiency. These results indicate MB-SWIFT as a non-ionizing imaging strategy with value for bone imaging and may be a promising technique to progress to the clinic for monitoring and clinical management of patients with bone diseases such as osteoporosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 1256260 DGE (RKS), and the National Institutes of Health S10 OD017979 , and P30 AR069620 .
- Bone mineral density
- Bone quality
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- SWeep imaging with Fourier transformation