In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus

S. L.S. Lages, M. A. Ramakrishnan, Sagar M Goyal

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67 Scopus citations


Hand disinfection is considered important in preventing the transmission of viruses, including norovirus. We investigated the virucidal efficacy of nine hand sanitisers (four alcohol-based sanitisers, three non-alcoholic sanitisers and two triclosan-containing antimicrobial liquid soaps) against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, on artificially contaminated fingertips for 30 s and 2 min contact periods. Among alcohol-based sanitisers, a product containing 99.5% ethanol was more effective than those containing 62% ethanol, 70% isopropanol or 91% isopropanol. A log10 virus reduction factor of 1.00-1.30 was achieved with 99.5% ethanol but those containing a lower alcohol concentration only achieved a log10 reduction factor of ≤0.67. Antiseptics containing 10% povidone-iodine (equivalent to 1% available iodine) reduced virus titre by a log10 reduction factor of 2.67 within 30 s contact time. This viral reduction rate was higher than that achieved with any of the alcohol-based sanitisers, non-alcoholic sanitisers or antimicrobial soaps. The two antimicrobial soaps tested showed minimal virus reduction (a log10 reduction factor of 0.17-0.50), which is similar to that obtained by washing hands without any soap (a log10 reduction factor of 0.33-0.42). These results indicate that triclosan-containing antimicrobial soaps or alcohol-based hand rubs may be inadequate for preventing norovirus transmission. Further research on alternative hand sanitisers should continue for effective control of norovirus infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-163
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Hospital Infection
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008


  • Feline calicivirus
  • Hand sanitisers
  • Norovirus


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