In vivo comparison of simultaneous versus sequential injection technique for thermochemical ablation in a porcine model

Erik N.K. Cressman, Mithun M. Shenoi, Theresa L. Edelman, Matthew G. Geeslin, Leah J. Hennings, Yan Zhang, Paul A Iaizzo, John C Bischof

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9 Scopus citations


Purpose: To investigate simultaneous and sequential injection thermochemical ablation in a porcine model, and compare them to sham and acid-only ablation. Materials and methods: This IACUC-approved study involved 11 pigs in an acute setting. Ultrasound was used to guide placement of a thermocouple probe and coaxial device designed for thermochemical ablation. Solutions of 10M acetic acid and NaOH were used in the study. Four injections per pig were performed in identical order at a total rate of 4mL/min: saline sham, simultaneous, sequential, and acid only. Volume and sphericity of zones of coagulation were measured. Fixed specimens were examined by H&E stain. Results: Average coagulation volumes were 11.2mL (simultaneous), 19.0mL (sequential) and 4.4mL (acid). The highest temperature, 81.3°C, was obtained with simultaneous injection. Average temperatures were 61.1°C (simultaneous), 47.7°C (sequential) and 39.5°C (acid only). Sphericity coefficients (0.830.89) had no statistically significant difference among conditions. Conclusions: Thermochemical ablation produced substantial volumes of coagulated tissues relative to the amounts of reagents injected, considerably greater than acid alone in either technique employed. The largest volumes were obtained with sequential injection, yet this came at a price in one case of cardiac arrest. Simultaneous injection yielded the highest recorded temperatures and may be tolerated as well as or better than acid injection alone. Although this pilot study did not show a clear advantage for either sequential or simultaneous methods, the results indicate that thermochemical ablation is attractive for further investigation with regard to both safety and efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-112
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Declaration of interest: This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health, grant number P30 CA77598, utilising the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota shared resource: Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.


  • Animal model
  • Coagulative necrosis
  • Hyperthermia
  • Thermochemical ablation


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