In vitro resistance to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 maturation inhibitor PA-457 (Beviriniat)

Catherine S. Adamson, Sherimay D. Ablan, Ioana Boeras, Ritu Goila-Gaur, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Feng Li, Karl Salzwedel, Michael Sakalian, Carl T. Wild, Eric O. Freed

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99 Scopus citations


3-0-(3′,3′-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (PA-457 or bevirimat) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation by blocking a late step in the Gag processing pathway, specifically the cleavage of SP1 from the C terminus of capsid (CA). To gain insights into the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 could evolve resistance to PA-457 and to evaluate the likelihood of such resistance arising in PA-457-treated patients, we sought to identify and characterize a broad spectrum of HIV-1 variants capable of conferring resistance to this compound. Numerous independent rounds of selection repeatedly identified six single-amino-acid substitutions that independently confer PA-457 resistance: three at or near the C terminus of CA (CA-H226Y, -L231F, and -L231M) and three at the first and third residues of SP1 (SP1-A1V, -A3T, and -A3V). We determined that mutations CA-H226Y, CA-L231F, CA-L231M, and SP1-A1V do not impose a significant replication defect on HIV-1 in culture. In contrast, mutations SP1-A3V and -A3T severely impaired virus replication and inhibited virion core condensation. The replication defect imposed by SP1-A3V was reversed by a second-site compensatory mutation in CA (CA-G225S). Intriguingly, high concentrations of PA-457 enhanced the maturation of SP1 residue 3 mutants. The different phenotypes associated with mutations that confer PA-457 resistance suggest the existence of multiple mechanisms by which HIV-1 can evolve resistance to this maturation inhibitor. These findings have implications for the ongoing development of PA-457 to treat HIV-1 infection in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10957-10971
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


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