The effect of antimicrobial supplementation of pigs on the capacity of their sera to influence proliferation and protein turnover in cultured muscle cells was evaluated. Mitogenic activity of sera increased when pigs were fed ASP250 (P less than .005) or carbadox (P less than .001), whereas the mitogenic activity of serum from pigs receiving the basal diet remained unchanged (P = .5). Additionally, sera from ASP250-fed pigs significantly decreased (P less than .001) total cellular protein degradation compared with sera obtained from the same pigs prior to supplementation. Neither ASP250 nor carbadox stimulated proliferation of myogenic cells when added to the culture media. Inclusion of ASP250 in swine diets altered the composition of their sera in a way that stimulated muscle cell proliferation and reduced the rate of protein degradation in cultured myogenic cells. Likewise, the inclusion of carbadox in swine diets increased the ability of their sera to stimulate cultured muscle cell proliferation.