In vitro Gd-DTPA relaxometry studies in oxygenated venous human blood and aqueous solution at 3 and 7T

Chaitanya Kalavagunta, Shalom Michaeli, Gregory J. Metzger

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In vitro T1 and T2* relaxivities (r1 and r2*) of Gd-DTPA (GaD) in oxygenated human venous blood (OVB) and aqueous solution (AS) at 3 and 7T were calculated. GaD concentrations ([GaD]) in OVB and AS were prepared in the range 0-5mM. All measurements were acquired at 37±2°C. At both 3 and 7T, a linear relationship was observed between [GaD] and R1 in both AS and OVB. At 7T, r1 in AS decreased by 7.5% (p=0.045) while there was a negligible change in OVB. With respect to R2*, a linear relationship with [GaD] was only observed in AS, while a more complex relationship was observed in OVB; quadratic below and linear above 2mM at both field strengths. There was a significant increase of over 4-fold in r2* with GaD in OVB at 7T (for [GaD] above 2mM, p<<0.01) as compared with 3T. Furthermore, in comparison to r1, r2* in AS was less than 2-fold higher at both field strengths while in OVB it was ~20-fold and ~90-fold higher at 3 and 7T, respectively. This observation emphasizes the importance of r2* knowledge at high magnetic fields, ≥3T. The comparison between r1 and r2* presented in this work is crucial in the design and optimization of high-field MRI studies making use of paramagnetic contrast agents. This is especially true in multiple compartment systems such as blood, where r2* dramatically increases while r1 remains relatively constant with increasing magnetic field strength.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-176
Number of pages8
JournalContrast Media and Molecular Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Aqueous solution
  • Arterial blood
  • Gd-DTPA
  • Oxygenation
  • Relaxivity
  • Relaxometry
  • T
  • T


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