In vitro expression and inhibition of procoagulant activity produced by bovine alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood cells

J. Rashid, D. J. Weiss, S. K. Maheswaran, M. P. Murtaugh

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5 Scopus citations


Local and systemic activation of coagulation is frequently associated with bacterial sepsis. The coagulopathy is due, at least in part, to expression of tissue factor (TF) by monocytes and macrophages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of procoagulant activity by bovine alveolar macrophages, leukocytes and platelets, and to determine the relative potency of three chemical inhibitors of TF expression (pentoxifylline, retinoic acid, and cyclosporin A). Bovine alveolar macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Pasteurella haemolytica or recombinant bovine tumour nervous factor (TNF) and dose- and time-dependent effects on TF expression were studied. LPS and TNF induced TF expression in alveolar macrophages and LPS treatment of whole blood induced TF expression in mononuclear cells. Neutrophils and platelets also expressed procoagulant activity, but this activity was not inhibited by anti-bovine TF monoclonal antibody. Pentoxifylline (40 μmol/L), retinoic acid (0.01 mmol/L) and cyclosporin A (0.08 μmol/L) inhibited TF expression when added concurrently with LPS or TNF, but not when added 4 h after stimulation. TF mRNA was not detected in unstimulated alveolar macrophages by Northern blot analysis. In contrast, exposure to LPS or TNF for 6 h induced marked expression of TF mRNA, which was inhibited by treatment with pentoxifylline, retinoic acid and cyclosporin A. Expression of TNF by alveolar macrophages stimulated with LPS was also inhibited by these compounds. Our results indicate that procoagulant activity expressed by alveolar macrophages and monocytes is associated with expression of TF, whereas procoagulant activity expressed by neutrophils and platelets is not. The concentrations of pentoxifylline and retinoic acid necessary for inhibition of TF expression in vitro may not be achievable in vivo owing to their toxic effects. However, the in vitro concentration of cyclosporin A that inhibited TF expression did not exceed the plasma concentration observed in humans, and therefore may be useful for inhibition of TF expression in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-531
Number of pages13
JournalVeterinary Research Communications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 26 1996


  • cattle
  • cyclosporin A
  • macrophages
  • pasteurellosis
  • pentoxifylline
  • pneumonia
  • procoagulant activity
  • retinoic acid
  • tissue factor

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