Improving student learning of ratio, proportion, and percent: A replication study of schema-based instruction

Asha K. Jitendra, Michael R. Harwell, Soo Hyun Im, Stacy R. Karl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The purpose of this replication study was to provide replication evidence not currently available of the effects of a research-based mathematics program, schema-based instruction, on the mathematical problem-solving performance of 7th-grade students. The replication was implemented in 36 schools in 5 districts; 59 mathematics teachers and their students (N = 1,492) participated in the study. Multilevel hierarchical linear analyses revealed statistically significant differences between conditions on proximal and distal measures of mathematics problem solving, with effects sizes similar to those reported in Jitendra et al. (2015).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1045-1062
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305A110358. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute of Education Sciences or the U.S. Department of Education. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of all teachers and students who participated in the study. Asha K. Jitendra is the primary author of the schema-based instruction program, which was unpublished at the time the study was conducted. However, to ensure objectivity of findings, all scoring, entry and data analysis were conducted by research assistants and the methodologist, who do not have any interests that might be interpreted as influencing the research. The research assistants and methodologist independently reviewed the manuscript to ensure data analysis, findings, discussion, and interpretations were appropriate, accurate, and objective.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Psychological Association.


  • Proportional reasoning
  • Schema-based instruction
  • Seventh-grade students


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