ZSM-5 is an important class of acid catalyst for producing bio-oil rich in petrochemicals; however, continuous efforts are required to improve the conversion efficiency of the biomass-derived oxygenates with large molecular sizes. The mesoporous ZSM-5 (N-ZSM-5) was prepared in a post-treatment method with nanocellulose as a green template in this study to induce additional surface and porous features. The post-treatment promoted the mesoporous properties in N-ZSM-5, which effectively converted lignocellulosic biomass to deoxygenated aromatic products in catalytic pyrolysis. Moreover, compared to the conventional or alkali-treated mesoporous ZSM-5, higher selectivity of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) was attained in catalytic pyrolysis of lignin while mitigating the coke accumulation. The product distribution was evaluated using the response surface methodology with reaction temperature (°C) and catalyst loading (g/g feedstock). The compositions of upgraded volatile products measured MAHs (~46.55 area%) and monophenols (~98.09 area%) depending on the process conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture at United States Department of Agriculture (Grant no. 2016-67021-24533 and 2018-67009-27904 ) funded this study. We would like to thank Dr. Valerie Lynch-Holm and Dr. Daniel Mullendore in electron spectroscopies at the Franceschi Microscopy & Imaging Center (FMIC), and Dr. Aftab Ahamed in GC MS instrument at Washington State University for their considerate assistance. We thank Ryan Lei for the English language editing.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons
- Catalytic pyrolysis
- Green template
- Mesoporous ZSM-5
- Nanocrystalline cellulose