Improving assessment of race, ethnicity, and culture to further veteran PTSD research.

Jane M. Onoye, Michele Spoont, Julia M. Whealin, Nnamdi Pole, Margaret Anne MacKintosh, James L. Spira, Leslie A. Morland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Racial and ethnic disparities in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its treatment have been documented for both civilians and military veterans. To better understand the presence of disparities and factors that might contribute to them, accurate assessment of race and ethnicity is critical; however there still remains unstandardized assessment and challenges to implementation. The authors highlight specific problems in the assessment of race and ethnicity in research, such as missing data, misclassification, classification categories too limited to reflect many peoples' social identities, and inappropriate aggregation of ethnoracial subgroups. Conclusions: A proposal is made for a minimal uniform assessment standard of race and ethnicity. Additional recommendations incorporate principles proposed by the Institute of Medicine that allow for more granular assessment of race and ethnicity to better capture individual identity and cultural factors as they relate to the assessment, experience and management of PTSD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Psychological Association.


  • PTSD
  • assessment
  • ethnicity
  • race
  • veteran


Dive into the research topics of 'Improving assessment of race, ethnicity, and culture to further veteran PTSD research.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this