It is not unusual for children to require dialysis for fluid and electrolyte management after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Previous studies have documented high mortality in children who require dialysis after HCT, but recent data are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dialysis after pediatric HCT and the survival of patients who received dialysis in 2 decades, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. A total of 1427 patients age <21 years who underwent a first HCT at the University of Minnesota between January 1990 and December 2009 were reviewed using prospectively collected data from the institutional HCT database. The incidence of dialysis during the first 100 days post-HCT and survival at 1 year post-HCT in the 2 cohorts were determined. Comparisons between patients who did and did not require dialysis were made using the χ2 and Fisher exact tests as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier estimates and 95% confidence intervals for 1-year post-HCT overall survival were reported by dialysis group and compared using the log-rank test. Predictors of overall survival among patients requiring dialysis were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The incidence of dialysis was not significantly different in the 2 cohorts (8.2% for 1990-1999 versus 8.9% for 2000-2009; P = .6326). Patients requiring dialysis were significantly more likely to survive to or past 1 year in the 2000-2009 cohort compared with the 1990-1999 cohort (23% versus 11%; P < .0001). Multivariate analyses found that older age at the time of HCT, primary disease type, pulmonary hemorrhage, and HCT in 1990-1999 were associated with increased mortality in the dialyzed population. The use of cyclosporine was associated with increased survival in the patients who received dialysis. Dialysis is an important complication of pediatric HCT with an incidence that has remained constant over the last 2 decades. Survival was improved in the 2000-2009 cohort regardless of dialysis status. Despite a recent significant reduction in mortality in patients requiring dialysis, mortality remains higher in these patients than in those who do not need dialysis.
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Financial disclosure: Jurat S. Rajpal was supported by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grant T32DK007087 .
- Acute kidney injury
- Stem cell transplantation