Improved influenza diagnostics through thermal contrast amplification

Yilin Liu, Li Zhan, Yiru Wang, Joseph R Kangas, Daniel Larkin, David R. Boulware, John C. Bischof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Influenza poses a serious health threat and creates an economic burden for people around the world. The accurate diagnosis of influenza is critical to the timely clinical treatment of patients and the control of outbreaks to protect public health. Commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that are operated by visual readout are widely used in clinics to screen influenza infections, but RIDTs suffer from imperfect analytical sensitivity, especially when the virus concentra-tion in the sample is low. Fortunately, the sensitivity can be simply improved through an add-on signal amplification step, i.e., thermal contrast amplification (TCA). To demonstrate the advantage of TCA for influenza diagnosis, we conducted a prospective cohort study on 345 clinical specimens collected for influenza A and B testing during the 2017–2018 influenza season. All samples were tested using the Quidel QuickVue Influenza A + B test, followed by a TCA readout, and then confir-matory polymerase chain reaction testing. Through the TCA detecting sub-visual weak positives, TCA reading improved the overall influenza sensitivity by 53% for influenza A and 33% for influenza B over the visual RIDTs readings. Even though the specificity was compromised slightly by the TCA protocol (relative decrease of 0.09% for influenza A and 0.01% for influenza B), the overall performance was still better than that achieved by visual readout based on comparison of their plots in receiver operating characteristic space and F1 scores (relative increase of 14.5% for influenza A and 12.5% for influenza B). Performing a TCA readout on wet RIDTs also improved the overall TCA performance (relative increase in F1 score of 48%). Overall, the TCA method is a simple and promising way to improve the diagnostic performance of commercial RIDTs for infectious diseases, especially in the case of specimens with low target analytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number462
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Influenza
  • Point-of-care
  • Rapid diagnostic test
  • Thermal contrast amplification


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