Improved glycemic control and acute complications among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Moshi, Tanzania

Lulengo J. Mukama, Antoinette Moran, Mramba Nyindo, Rune Philemon, Levina Msuya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


Objective: There are an estimated 1000 children with diabetes in Tanzania. Recently, the first two pediatric endocrinologists, trained in the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE)/International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) program in Nairobi, Kenya, entered practice. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of a 6-month diabetes management and education program on glycemic control and acute complications in children and adolescents in Tanzania. Research design and methods: Eighty-one patients aged 3-19yr were enrolled. All were on split-dose Insulatard (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) and Actrapid (soluble, regular) insulin, and were given three glucose test strips per week. Children were seen in clinic an average of six times over 6months and received 3h of diabetes education. A structured questionnaire evaluated social demographic data and acute complications. Results: Despite regular clinic attendance, diabetes education, and provision of insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels did not improve. Four children (5%) had HbA1c 7.5%, 22 (28%) HbA1c 7.5-10%, 9 (24%) HbA1c 11-12.5%, and 36 (44%) HbA1c >12.5%. There was a substantial reduction in severe hypoglycemia, with 17% of subjects experiencing this acute complication compared to 52% in the 6months prior to study enrolment. Six children were admitted in diabetic ketoacidosis during the study compared to three during the previous 6months. Twenty-six children (36%) reported missing >6 doses of insulin (but only two lacked insulin). Conclusions: Diabetes education significantly reduced the risk of severe hypoglycemia, but better glycemic control of diabetes was not attained. Further study is needed to explore factors to improve glycemic control including increased testing, or perhaps different insulin regimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-216
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Diabetes
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2013


  • Complications
  • Glycemic control
  • Type 1 diabetes

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