Improved gas exchange and survival after KL-4 surfactant in newborn pigs with severe acute lung injury

Anna M. Zimmermann, Kari D Roberts, Andrea L. Lampland, Patricia A. Meyers, Cathy T. Worwa, Brenda Plumm, M. Cristina Pacheco, Marla R. Wolfson, Mark C Mammel

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17 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the effectiveness of artificial surfactant therapy using KL-4 surfactant in newborn pigs with hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Design: After induction of ALI via intratracheal HCl instillation, pigs were randomized to receive 5.8 ml/kg KL-4 surfactant or no surfactant prior to extubation to bubble CPAP. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Subjects: Spontaneously breathing newborn pigs (<1 week of age). Interventions: Treatment with KL-4 surfactant on bubble CPAP with PEEP of 6cmH2O for 3.5 hr after extubation compared with controls. Measurements: Physiologic parameters and arterial blood gases were measured every 15 min. At the conclusion of the study, the lungs were excised for the analysis of histopathology and morphometric data. Main Results: Pigs treated with KL-4 surfactant had arterial blood gases with less acidosis (P < 0.001), higher PaO2 levels (P < 0.001), and lower P aCO2 levels (P < 0.001). Pigs treated with KL-4 surfactant had improved survival compared with controls (6/12 KL-4, 2/12 control, P < 0.05). Postmortem morphometric data demonstrated that pigs treated with KL-4 surfactant had larger (P < 0.05) exchange units in the caudal-dorsal lung as compared to relatively atelectatic region in the control animals. Conclusions: In newborn pigs with severe HCl-induced ALI, treatment with KL-4 surfactant resulted in improved respiratory parameters, less dependent atelectasis, and improved short-term survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)782-788
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric pulmonology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2010


  • Acute lung injury
  • Animal model
  • Surfactant therapy
  • Synthetic surfactant


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